is the first published Electronic Newspaper for
On the brackish Widewater Lagoon, Mute Swans drunk from a bowl of fresh water provided for them.
Report by Peter Talbot-Elsden
was insufficient time to cover the 3 last aspects because of the detailed
discussion on the first two points.
Coombes: (this is a Link to Jenny Passmore's site)
the Sites of Special Scientific Interest using this link:
"The paradox of the life sciences which makes them different in kind from physical science, is in the detail of nature everywhere. We see it about us in the birds, the trees, the grass, the snails, in every living thing. It is this. The manifestation of life, its expressions, its forms, are so diverse that they must contain a large element of the accidental. And yet the nature of life is so uniform that it must be constrained by many necessities."
from the "Ascent of Man", Chapter 9: The Ladder of CreationBook Club Associates 1974
by J. Bronowski
The Mail Merge facility is just another reason why old fashioned typewriters are redundant in modern business use. The ability of computers to send personalised messages to large numbers of people and organisations can be very useful.
However, the instructions
and tips for inserting addresses into a Mail Merge document are usually
couched in difficult to decipher language which can be off-putting. In
the old computer terms the rule was that separate database information
is imported into the document. However, these databases can now be compiled
in lots of different programs.
Files from Microsoft Access
Microsoft Excel, if these programs are installed on your system.
Files in the following formats, if you included the appropriate converter when you installed Word:
ASCII text files Microsoft
Word for the Macintosh versions 3.0 – 6.x Microsoft Word versions
small address lists (up to about 12) the ostensibly easiest way is to use
the Microsoft Word "Table" system. Go
to the menu Tools > Mail Merge. However, this
system is misleading and you have to save the list of addresses with the
main document, or rather if you do not save the main document you can lose
your address list and it is not recoverable.
Relay: Pete Finch, Mick Wackford etc. at
Community Centre, Shoreham
taxonomic study of place-names, based on etymological, historical, and geographical information. A place-name is a word or words used to indicate, denote, or identify a geographic locality such as a town, river, or mountain. Toponymy divides place-names into two broad categories: habitation names and feature names. A habitation name denotes a locality that is peopled or inhabited, such as a homestead, village, or town, and usually dates from the locality's inception. Feature names refer to natural or physical features of the landscape and are subdivided into hydronyms (water features), oronyms (relief features), and places of natural vegetation growth (meadows, glades, groves).
Toponymy is concerned with the linguistic evolution (etymology) of place-names and the motive behind the naming of the place (historical and geographical aspects). Most toponymy, however, has concentrated on the etymological study of habitation names, often neglecting the study of feature names and the motive behind the naming of the place.
Habitation and feature names are either generic or specific, or a combination of the two. A generic name refers to a class of names such as river, mountain, or town. A specific name serves to restrict or modify the meaning of the place-name. Most of the world's languages can be divided into two groups based on the general tendency to have the specific either precede or follow the generic. In English the specific usually comes first, while in French the specific generally follows the generic. The influence of other languages creates exceptions to this generalization. The influence of French and Spanish created many exceptions to the tendency in English in the United States to have the specific first. This is most evident in the naming of many larger bodies of water, such as Lake Superior, Lake Michigan, or Lake Champlain, that were first explored and settled by the French. English settlers migrating into these areas accepted the French naming convention, but since the French did not colonize the areas heavily, many of the smaller bodies of water in these regions were named under the English convention of specific first.
Most toponymic studies have concentrated on the specific aspect of the place-name. The adjectival form of the specific is the dominant place-name type in English. Prepositional place-names used in a descriptive sense are more rare in English. The City of Chicago is an example of the prepositional place-name, but in common use the preposition and the generic are dropped.
Toponymy also involves the study of place-names within and between languages. Studies within a language usually follow three basic assumptions: every place-name has a meaning, including place-names derived from personal names; place-names describe the site and record some evidence of human occupation or ownership; once a place-name is established or recorded, its phonetic development will parallel the language's development.
The study of place-name transfer
from one language to another is undertaken by investigating oral and written
methods of place-name communication. Phonetic transfer is the most common
means of place-name transfer between languages. This involves the spoken
transfer of a place-name from one language to another. Little or no knowledge
of the language from which the place-name originated is required. A person
will listen to the place-name spoken and then phonetically render the place-name
in his or her own language, creating at best a close approximation. Many
of the early North American colonial place-names were transferred from
native Indian languages in this manner. Oral translation requires at least
some degree of bilingualism on the part of both parties communicating the
place-name. Translations of place-names have usually occurred with more
important place-names or with large features. Many of the names of the
seas of the world, for example, have been translated from different languages.
Folk etymology is based on the sound of the place-name and is therefore
The dominance of etymology in toponymy has limited the interest in writing as a means of place-name transfer. As printing became more important over the years, place-names were adopted between countries and languages directly from maps by visual transfer. Once the name had been adopted by visual transfer, it was pronounced according to the adopting language's standards.
Toponymy can uncover important historical information about a place, such as the period of time the original language of the inhabitants lasted, settlement history, and population dispersal. Place-name study can also provide insight to religious changes in an area, such as the conversion to Christianity. Information about the folklore, institutional conditions, and social conditions of a place can be understood as well. Linguistic information like words and personal names, not mentioned in literature, can also be found through toponymy.
The name "Adur" arose from a mistake in interpretation of 5th century Roman documents for Portus Adurni, which was originally claimed to be in what is now the Adur estuary, but now known to be at Portchester. The name appeared in Michael Drayton's 'Polyolbion' in the 17th century (1612).
The name "Adur" from the Celtic word 'dwyr' or 'dwfr' meaning 'flowing waters' is in doubt. The source reference is in Henry Cheal's 'History of Shoreham' but there is no reference in the book, and there does not appear to be a word 'dwyr' known to the experts (checked). The name 'Adur' may have arisen by mistake by Harrison's application of the Roman 'Portus Adurni' to a location near the current Adur, from the document 'Notitia Dignitatum' .New research: Old river names like the Thames often have ancient origins, pre-Saxon, i.e. Celtic. I have now discovered the Cornish (Celtic) word "dowr" and the Welsh "dwfr" which means water. The must be a slight possibility that (Adur without the A) was in existence as the common name of the river before Michael Drayton erroneously attributed 'Portus Adurni' to a location near the current Adur.
'a-dhowr' (Cornish) means of the water, or from the water. Now,
there still must be considerable doubt over the origin Adur from the Celtic
(there are no comparable names in Wales or Cornwall).
river has also been known as the
Sore (Holinshed's Chronicle 1577).
This is likely to be because of back-formation. Back-formation is the reverse
of affixation, being the analogical creation of a new word from an existing
word falsely assumed to be its derivative. (i.e. Sore arose after the name
Shoreham and not the other way round).
Westwood produce a CD-ROM version of the popular board game Monopoly. It is a very playable game (in some respects better than the actual board game, e.g. making deals). There is scope for special rules, but the opportunity for changes has been missed, and on the copy of this game I played on, some of the alternative rules e.g. collecting fines for landing on Free Parking did not work properly). For fans of the game only.
There remains sponsorship opportunities on the BMLSS (England) web site and other publications, including Torpedo.
Sponsorship is also available for the Adur Electronic News Bulletin and the Shoreham-by-Sea web pages (which preceded the Adur Resource Centre web site), which would be more suitable for a local firm(s).
Normal advertisement rules
Adur Torpedo was written, designed and distributed by Andy Horton.
Links to earlier issues
(for subscribers who have downloaded the Bulletins only, and web site visitors).