Fungi of Shoreham
 

including the Adur Levels, Mill Hill and cyclepath to Upper Beeding

Link to Reports from Autumn 2005 et seq

13 September 2005
On the large pile of horse dung in Frampton's Field (north of The Street, Old Shoreham) there was a large number of mushrooms.
 

They looked like Panaeolus sphinctrinus to my inexperienced eye. Second thoughts says they are Coprinus pachyspermus ?

4 September 2005
There was Honey Fungus Mushrooms (a harmful to living trees species) on the Hawthorn scrub immediately to the north of the lower slopes of Mill Hill.

1 September 2005

There was a Dryad's Saddle, Polyporus squamosus, attached to the base of a wooden sculpture on the Coastal Link cyclepath near the first layby (from the south) on the Steyning Road.
 

3 August 2005

This small mushroom was found on the grass on the shingle near Old Fort. The photograph is probably not good enough for identification. The cap is about 25 mm in diameter. I neglected to measure the long stem of about 100 mm. It could be a Coprinus, one of the Ink Caps?

22 July 2005
The Dryad's Saddle, Polyporus squamosus has grown again in the front verge in Mill Hill Road. One large mushroom is already deteriorating. There is one intact large mushroom.

30 May 2005
There were half a dozen mushrooms in a tub of compost in a Shoreham garden, which means they could have come from almost anywhere. They look like Psathyrella candolleana.

Identification by Malcolm Storey (BioImages) on the Fungi of the British Isles (Yahoo Group)
Images
 
28 May 2005
A solitary small mushroom was intact and quite firmly in place amongst the herbs on the lower slopes of Mill Hill.
22 May 2005

On a Shoreham garden lawn

This is the Haymaker, Panaeolous sp. 

 
Haymaker, Panaeolous sp

Unidentified small mushrooms
 

6 May 2005
There were some more of the small mushrooms (illustrated on the right) on the lower slopes of Mill Hill, that I still have not been able to identify. These two were next to the path. They appear to be very new.
Previous Report of what appear to be the same species
Fungi Images on the Web

1 May 2005
After the rain in the last week, two species of mushroom emerged on the upper slopes of Mill Hill.
The first two were amongst the long grass and Germander Speedwell amongst the scrub on the middle slopes.
The second smaller two were in very short turf and Rabbit faeces just above the ridge. The caps of these second mushrooms were only 50% larger that the balls of Rabbit faeces. This is probably the Dung Fungus, Stropharia semiglobata.
 

Mill Hill 2005

18 April 2005
The strange and unusual looking Morel Mushroom, Morchella esculenta, was seen on the side of the Pixie Path to Mill Hill. It looked dried out but I expect they always look like this. There were small orange ants around the base of the mushroom.

7 April 2005
The following dried-out mushroom was found still upright on wood chips in a flower bed near the main south-western gate of Buckingham Park, Shoreham.
 

It appears to be a common species that keeps on cropping up, but I am not sure of the species name. There were at least three, one with a cap at least 85 mm in diameter.

10 March 2005
On the cyclepath south of the Cement Works, on the rotten logs on the cyclepath verges there were numerous Trametes bracket fungi and on the end of another log there were some King Alfred’s Cakes; a distinctive blackish-coloured fungus. This latter one was recorded in Shoreham for the first time.
 
Trametes on a rotten log on the Coastal Link cyclepath King Alfred's Cakes

Adur Levels 2005
Adur Fungi: Fruiting Bodies (Monthly Guide)
 


 

29 December 2004
An old dessicated mushroom (photographed on the right) found on an old wooden groyne on the shingle part of Shoreham Beach near the kiosk at the eastern end of Widewater Lagoon car park was possibly a species of Agrocybe. It was incongruous on the beach, but it looked like a common species on a poor condition, so I did not stop to examine it closely.

8 December 2004
Whilst waiting for Eastern Avenue railway gates to open in Shoreham, I spotted over a dozen dried out mushrooms on the wood chips in the McDonald's car park. The cap diameter was estimated at 40 mm in the largest specimen, although most of them were smaller to 30 mm. In the older specimens the conical cap became flat, with an upturned rim. The stipe was brown in some of the mushrooms. On a small specimen the cap was slightly conical and brown.
This is certainly a very common, but not distinctive, species, but I have not got the correct name for it straightaway. (There are too many similar species.)

7 December 2004
On Spring Dyke (TQ 209 068) next to Miller's Stream two species of mushroom were discovered:
 

It was not until my departure (by the gate) that I discovered them. The red-orange mushroom growing from the reed strewn soil measured 22 cm cap diameter and it was 44 mm high and this is probably Tubaria furfuracea seen last winter (above far left). The other species (three images above, second from right to far right) looked much smaller, although the measurements of this tall mushroom were 90 mm high and a conical cap diameter of 18 mm, with a smaller specimen next to it which measured 65 mm high and a brown conical cap that was about 7 mm in diameter. This species came out of the soil and the base of the stipe was root-like as shown in the photograph on the far right. The smaller mushroom of the same species had pale cream-fawn gills that had not turned black.

Tubaria furfuracea certainly looks likely.
The other one is a Psathyrella - if it is rooting it's Psathyrella microrhiza, but rooting refers to a small tap root, not lots of little white rootlets (which would be called "strigose"). Must dig up carefully and then usually need to cut in half (vertically) to see if it's rooting. If not rooting, then probably Psathyrella gracilis. They both start out brown and dry pale grey to dirty white, but young caps of Psathyrella microrhiza are richer brown and more parabolic whereas Psathyrella gracilis is duller and more conical. Tubaria furfuracea, Psathyrella microrhiza and Psathyrella gracilis all usually grow from sawdust, although late in the seaon (i.e. December!) Tubaria furfuracea grows on soil - some people call this another species (Tubaria hiemalis, I think).

Identification and Comment by Malcolm Storey (BioImages) on the Fungi of the British Isles (Yahoo Group)
Spring Dyke Fungi 2004-5

6 December 2004
Underneath the Field Maple on a footpath (between the Waterworks Road and the Steyning Road the first mushrooms seen were a group of at least eight intact Common Ink Caps, Coprinus atramentarius, followed a group of about six fresh Wood BlewitMycenaLepista nuda, to 90 mm cap diameter, and the miniature white Clavulina. A Mycena mushroom (right) was still there, but the fruiting body look dried out with pale brown gills.
Images

30 November 2004
Underneath the Field Maple on a footpath (between the Waterworks Road and the Steyning Road the first mushrooms seen were a group of three fresh Common Ink Caps, Coprinus atramentarius, followed almost immediately by a few small Mycena-like mushrooms on a long stalk growing in soil, and some remaining miniature white Clavulina. The small mushrooms (photograph on the right) were probably Mycena flavescens.
Next to the Waterworks Road, there was a large old Straw Mushroom, Volvariella gloiocephala, with its distinctive volva.
In the scrub to the north of the the lower slopes of Mill Hill, the fruiting bodies of two Honey Fungus, Armillaria, were on a Hawthorn bush and seen last year in the same place.
 
Ink Caps
Common Ink Caps
Volvariella gloiocephala
Honey Fungus
Unidentified

On the middle slopes (Triangle area) of Mill Hill two further small mushrooms were seen. The first solitary one (on the far right above) has not been identified.  The second species, with at least two discovered, was the Pale Wax Cap, Hygrocybe pratensis var pallida. Then there was a group of the common bracket fungus Trametes versicolor on a stump.

22 November 2004
In the scrubby area of Hawthorn in the north-west of Mill Hill Nature Reserve, a small yellowish mushroom was spotted in the area cleared by the South Downs Conservation Board. It was growing out of the soil, near where the Hawthorn and other bushes had been chopped down, with plenty of rabbit droppings. Its cap diameter was 13 mm.
 
Small mushroom with a yellowish hue

As this species was growing out of the soil it is thought to be Mycena flavescens. There is a similar species Mycena arcangeliana which grows on wood.

ID by Jean J Wuilebaut on the Fungi of the British Isles (Yahoo Group)


16 November 2004
Observations indicated the creamy-white and brownish-cream mushrooms with decurrent gills on the upper and middle slopes of Mill Hill photographed below were one and the same species. I have identified this species (wrongly from earlier photographs) as the Snowy Wax Cap, Hygrocybe virginea var. virginea (= Cuphophyllus niveus) (or it could be the Pale Wax Cap, Hygrocybe pratensis var pallida) but this choice has not been confirmed.

This species has now been confirmed as the Pale Wax Cap, Hygrocybe berkeleyi, (known on the British Mycological List as Hygrocybe pratensis var pallida).

ID by Jean J Wuilebaut on the Fungi of the British Isles (Yahoo Group)
Cercle de Mycologie de mons (Belgique) page perso de JJ.Wuilbaut

Adur Wax Caps
 

There was one other small brown mushroom in the Triangle area of Mill Hill, with some bracket fungi, Trametes versicolor, on a stump.

15 November 2004
The Clitocybe "Funnel Cap" mushrooms were still present mostly in an ivory white colour, (the brown ones had all disappeared), on the A27 road embankment at the top of The Drive, Shoreham. Some of these appeared to be the same mushrooms as before so some of them keep their white colour for longer (at least two weeks?) than others.

11 November 2004
Another small white mushroom was discovered on the upper and middle slopes of Mill Hill.
Mushroom Report on Mill Hill (with images)

9 November 2004
 
Small brown mushroom from the edge of the footpath near Mill Hill Small brown mushroom from the edge of the footpath near Mill Hill

The two small mushrooms in the photographs above only reached 30 mm in cap diameter and most of the small clump, on the footpath approach to Mill Hill from the Waterworks Road, were about 20 mm. They have not been identified.
The spore print of this mushroom turned out to be white.

With the latest photographs this species has now been identified as probably being a Dermoloma, if blackening, Dermoloma magicum.
PS: There was no sign of this mushroom turning black in colour.

ID by Jean J Wuilebaut on Fungi of the British Isles (Yahoo Group)


This latter species is a new one to the British fungal list, not because it is rare though. This was difficult for me to identify because all the pictures available show Dermoloma with white or cream gills. All these specimens had brown gills as shown in the photographs. The cap in the specimen above is beginning to show white lines which were not present in the smaller mushrooms. This seems to be a feature of this genus.
Later (2014) the species was thought to be the Crazed Cap, Dermoloma cuneifolium.

8 -9 November 2004
In the damp Field Maple leaf litter and tree stumps on the footpath (between the Waterworks Road and the Steyning Road, several mushrooms new to this area were discovered.
 
Wood Blewitt Small brown mushrooms

These included one Wood Blewit, Lepista nuda, one tall mushroom with a white column which had deteriorated, is probably Coprinus niveus, and a brown mushroom with a thin brittle brown stalk and brown gills with patches of red. This makes me think it is the Bleeding Mycena, Mycena haematopus (? could be a similar species ?). The spore print of this mushroom was light brown.
There were also Clavulina and Clavaria miniature white fungi growing on mossy stumps and two very small brown mushrooms, possibly Crepidotus variabilis, on a twig that showed their gills on top.
Full Report

4 November 2004
On the footpath (between the Waterworks Road and the Steyning Road, the clump of Shaggy Parasols were not be seen and all but two of the Common Ink Caps were broken. This is a rarely used footpath and both fungi were in the middle of the path. Instead there were at least four clumps of what appeared to be Sulphur Tuft, growing from a moss-lined tree stump imbedded in the soil and leaf litter. There may be a few pine stumps amongst the Field Maple.
 
Sulphur Tuft Sulphur Tuft Common Ink Cap

3 November 2004
Wood BlewitGenerally, on lawns, on grass verges, under town trees and in flower beds, mushrooms proliferated and were certainly in much larger numbers than the dry summer and autumn of 2004. November is the best month, but without veering out of my way to look for them, the numbers and variety exceed my capacity to record and identify all of them.

The mushrooms were photographed and recorded on the following web page (click on the text below this line):
Fungi of the Urban Adur Area in November 2004

Identified and recognisable species included Volvariella gloiocephala, Glistening Ink-caps, Field Mushrooms, Parrot Wax Caps, Clitocybe, Leucoagaricus leucothites, Wood Blewits, a Blackening Ink Cap and the broken remnants of a species of a Honey Fungus Armillaria gallica, plus at least four species that I could not confidently put a name to.

2 November 2004
Common Ink CapsUnderneath the Field Maple on a footpath (between the Waterworks Road and the Steyning Road the first mushrooms seen were Clavulina and Clavaria miniature white fungi followed by a group of three Common Ink Caps, Coprinus atramentarius, and then more of these prominent mushrooms around the tree roots, followed by two early Shaggy Parasols, Macrolepiota rhacodes, on the path.
Full Report and Images
Adur Fungi: Fruiting Bodies (Monthly Guide)

1 November 2004

Whereas after the dry summer of 2003, Mill Hill was parched and the grass and herblands were almost devoid of fungi, this year, there seems to be dozens of what are almost certainly common species scattered thinly over the whole area. There were up to nine different species of mushroom in less than one hour without looking for them. One notable discovery was the mushroom with a volva called Volvariella gloiocephala.

Full Report
Autumn 2004 Fungi of Mill Hill
 
31 October 2004
Some of the white mushroooms identified as Clitocybe on the A27 road embankment at the top of The Drive, Shoreham, were beginning to turn a brownish colour before disintegrating. The photograph on the right shows the change of colour. There were still at least a dozen white ones and probably more amongst the mosses, mixed herbs and discarded litter.
The most distinct impression was the the very flat (plane cap) nature and white colour of the fresh caps. It was after less than a week, the mushroom turns brownish and begins to disintegrate. Later observations seemed to indicate that most mushrooms retained their white colour for at least two weeks, and only some them turned brown and disintegrated. Then as the colour changes the centre of the cap drops and the whole cap becomes concave. Again, this did not happen at the same rate for all the mushrooms. The cap seems to be noticably thinner that other mushrooms of a comparative size.
Clitocybe dealbata contains muscarine which if consumed cause alarming symptoms and is dangerously (or is best to assume this) poisonous.
Poisoning by Unknown Fungi
 
28 October 2004
Mushrooms were encountered in the most unexpected places almost treading upon them before they stood out.
 
 

This white mushroom has been seen before on Lancing Ring meadows and may be early small fruiting bodies of a fungus that grows larger than these ones, the cap diameter of the larger of the two circles in the photograph measured 45 mm. Notice the decurrent gills that run down the stem. At the time of writing, I have not yet attempted to identify this species. They were found on the A27 road embankment at the top of The Drive, Shoreham. This is mostly gravel, a few mosses, herbs and woody plants including Cotoneaster. 
This species has been identified as a species of Clitocybe possibly dealbata. This species has the popular name of Ivory Funnel Cap.
ID by Jean J Wuilebaut on Fungi of the British Isles (Yahoo Group)
Cercle de Mycologie de mons (Belgique) page perso de JJ.Wuilbaut

 
Lancing Ring record
 
 
This mushroom is the Golden Wax Cap, Hygrocybe chlorophana. They were discovered on the A27 road embankment just east of the bridge section where it crosses the Waterworks Road. This would have been part of the old Mill Hill. The cap diameter of the measured species was 30 mm. Most were larger up to 60 mm. The spore print was white.
Adur Wax Caps
Wax Caps Page
 

Wax Cap
Wax Caps  taken on 26 Cctober 2004, with cap diameters at 32 mm +.

The Wax Caps of yesterday (above, centre and right) had now grown and were large enough to try and identify them. The scarlet caps were at least 32 mm in diameter. The fungi are on the Pixie Path and they are not expected to last. There are 63 species of Hygrocybe found in Britain. They have been identified as the Dune Wax Cap, Hygrocybe conicoides. This mushroom is usually found near the sea. In this case it was two miles from the sea.

ID by Jean J Wuilebaut on Fungi of the British Isles (Yahoo Group)
Sometimes this species is recorded as Hygrocybe conica var conicoides. It is usually to be found near the sea. This is the name on British Mycological Society list.


25 October 2004
The was a small mushroom (above left) on the muddy footpath approach to Mill Hill from the Waterworks Road, with a conical cap 10 mm in diameter when measured from the side. I have postponed trying to put an instant name to this small mushroom, photographed and displayed on the right. This is likely to be a species of wax cap, Hygrocybe.

ID suggestion by Colin Duke (Mid-Yorks Fungi Group)


The spore print of this mushroom was white but this does not give an indication to species as the first few Hygrocybe looked at in the book all had white spore prints. This all seem strange to get a white spore print from a brown mushroom.
Adur Hygrocybe
Mycologue

22 October 2004
A solitary and rather old mushroom arose from some mixed plants next (between the path and river) to the cyclepath south-east of the Toll Bridge.
 

The stem of the mushroom was measured at 10 cm high. The cap diameter was not measured, but this was estimated at 5 cm.

20 October 2004
In the misty gloom of an overcast day at almost dusk, there was an unfamilar white mushroom which had been broken off its stem and lay loose on the long grass on the southern part of Mill Hill.
 
Unfamiliar mushroom

It was about the average size of a flat commercial mushroom, estimated at 65 mm cap diameter. The gills are more widely spaced than other white mushrooms seen on the downs. This could be the result of age and deterioration though.

On the lower slopes of Mill Hill there were a couple of species of mushrooms, a handful of a white species (now turning slightly brown) and a smaller one with brown gills. Although this one does not show a ring, it is very similar to the white one below, with a stem that is easily broken.
 

The photograph above is an old specimen of Leucoagaricus leucothites.

The smaller brown one had a cap 20 mm across. The spore print for the small brown mushroom was dark brown (my first successful spore print).
How to take a Spore Print (Link)
Mushroom Images from Mill Hill
Small Brown Mushroom (Images)

11 October 2004
A white mushroom was discovered amongst the Horseshoe Vetch on the lower slopes of Mill Hill. This is the one with a ring.
More Images
Images for ID (JJW)
This species is almost certainly the White Dapperling, Leucoagaricus leucothites. I do not think that the common name is actually used for this frequently encountered species?

Suggested ID by Jean J Wuilebaut on Fungi of the British Isles (Yahoo Group)
It turns a pinkish-buff with age, so the brownish species may be the same one.
 

The Dryad's Saddle, Polyporus squamosus, has been smashed and all the mushrooms removed from the front garden in Mill Hill Road. The photographs below show the underside and the stipe (stem).
 
Close-up of the underside of a Dryad's Saddle

Previous Report and Image

6 October 2004

In the a cleared area of scrub in the north-west of Mill Hill Nature Reserve, there were a few small mushrooms on a stump.
Report and Images
 
Fungi again appeared on the rotten log by the road layby5 October 2004
Fungi again appeared on the rotten log by the road layby on the Coastal Link Cyclepath. The suggested species is Agrocybe aegerita (= A. cylindracea). They looked decidedly unappetising. The mushrooms had a stipe (stem) growing out of the wood to 100 mm long and a cap diameter of up to 110 mm.
Previous Report and Images

 

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

4 October 2004
The designated footpath (between the Waterworks Road and the Steyning Road, Old Shoreham) produced a solitary mushroom amongst the leaf litter of Field Maple with an occasional small pine. It stood upright measured 80 mm above the ground, attached to a almost hidden root in the middle of the path. It gills were white and it is shown in the photographs below. The cap was 55 mm in diameter. It lacked a ring and did not have either a volvaor a bulbous base. It was quite strong and it readily sprang back into place after I bent the mushroom back to take photographs of its gills. The second picture shows the mushroom to be partly eaten or damaged. It did not have a noticeable smell. The surface of the cap was slightly slimy, but I attributed this to the rain.
This species was the Rooting Shank, Oudemansiella radicata. This species was top of my short list for identification.
By 7 October 2004, this mushroom had dried out.

ID by Malcolm Storey (BioImages) on the UK Wildlife (Yahoo Group)
Introduction to Fungi
Wild Mushroom Pickers' Code of Conduct
Ectomycorrhizal Fungi
Fungal Reference List
 

There was also one more clump of the Ink Cap Mushrooms seen on 26 September 2004 and shown again in the image second from the left below. The gills had turned black.
Unidentified
There was one mushroom on the steeper slopes of Mill Hill. This mushroom still remains unidentified.

Because the Dryad's Saddle (Toadstool) mentioned below was next to a dangerous (because of motor traffic) part of Mill Hill Road, I may have overlooked one of the Ink Cap Mushrooms below the larger fungus. These look like the Glistening Inkcap, Coprinus micaceus.
 
Shrivelled up fungus

There was a third fungus with a fruiting body that had shrivelled up as well, although this is what a Dryad's Saddle eventually succumbs too. The black stem is characteristic.

3 October 2004
The same mushrooms found on 30 June 2004 were again discovered in the twitten between Ravensbourne Avenue and Buckingham Park after the recent rain. The gills were white in these closed mushrooms. They were firm to touch and felt just like commercial mushrooms.

1 October 2004
A huge toadstool has grown on a tree stump in Mill Hill Road, Old Shoreham. It measured 45 cm in length. This is the Dryad's Saddle, Polyporus squamosus, and it has been seen before in the same location. The books record usual sizes up to 30 cm only, but there have been reports of up to 60 cm.

ID confirmed by Mark Pike on Fungi of the British Isles (Yahoo Group)
Previous Report
 
Dryad's Saddle

A small collection of probable Panaeolus sphinctrinus were on the road verge next to a cattle field just north of Mill Hill bridge (bridge over the A27). There is a common name of Hoop-petticoat Fungus, but I cannot see this name becoming popular because of its affinity for living on or near dung.
Names of Fungi
 

27 September 2004
A mushroom with a small orange cap was seen amongst the grass and herbs on the lower slopes of Mill Hill south of the Tor Grass zone. It is illustrated in the three photographs below.
Chalkhill Fungi (Images for ID)
 
 
I do not know if it was the rain but the gills of the mushroom found yesterday (photographed immediately below) have now turned an inky black
 
I do not know if it was the rain but the gills of the mushroom found yesterday have now turned black. It looks like a Parasol . gills

26 September 2004
On a footpath (between the Waterworks Road and the Steyning Road, Old Shoreham) under a canopy of Field Maple a strange mushroom poked out of the leaf litter. Its gills had a pale blue-grey hue which is unusual. It was about the size of a commercial flat mushroom, about 50 mm in diameter. This is one of the Ink Cap Mushrooms, Coprinus.

ID by  Malcolm Storey (BioImages) on UK Wildlife (Yahoo Group)

 
The closely packed gills have been accentuated in this photograph to render the colour nearer their visual appearance

24 September 2004
The following mushrooms were discovered, three of the first species and one unidentified, and without a stem, on the lower slopes of Mill Hill south of the Tor Grass zone. I again did not measure the mushrooms, but the first one was about the size of a commercial flat mushroom, i.e. variable about 60 mm cap diameter. The gills are white, but it looks like the species that has turned brown and shown below.
 
The gills are white, but it looks like the species that has turned brown and shown below
Leucoagaricus leucothites
Mushroom in the short herbland
This one has not got a stem, but it still may be the same species? 

2 September 2004
This solitary mushroom poked out of the short herbland next to a Rabbit warren just below the ridge on the lower slopes of Mill Hill. It was not measured, but it was estimated to be about 85 mm in diameter. I had a guess that this could be a species of Lepiota. This species was later identified as Leucoagaricus leucothites.
 

British Mycological Society

26 August 2004

Conocybe in the horse's dungStill overcast after the deluge of 24 August 2004, the soaking had resulted in mushrooms appearing of three different species, probably Conocybe in the horse's field south-west of the bridge to Mill Hill, a still unidentified mushroom on the lower slopes and the first species I have discovered on the bare earth under the canopy of broad-leaved (Italian Alder, Beech, Norway Maple) and evergreen (Corsican Pine) trees in the copse on the top of the hill. This latter species illustrated on the far right underneath has not yet been identified although it resembled the edible Field Mushroom in appearance, although the gills were lighter in colour. There was a deteriorated specimen with darker, almost black gills. They were inconspicuous as a white dome was almost parallel with the surface of the soil and the beginnings of the leaf litter were distracting. This mushroom has been confirmed as the Field Mushroom, Agaricus campestris.
 
Small mushroom amongst Goosefoot and near the Tor Grass on the lower slopes Agaricus? on the bare earth in the copse on Mill Hill
Agaricus? on the bare earth in the copse on Mill Hill
Small mushroom from the lower slopes
of Mill Hill
Medium-sized mushroom from the
mixed copse on Mill Hill
Medium-sized mushroom from the mixed copse on Mill Hill

The illustrated Agaricus species of mushroom in the photographs immediately above (centre and right) looks like the Field Mushroom, Agaricus campestris. There are other species it could be including the Wood Mushroom, Agaricus silvicola, the less common Agaricus bitorquis or the coastal species Agaricus bernardii. This mushroom did not have a noticeable smell.

Wood Mushroom ID suggestion by Colin Jacobs on  the Fungi of the British Isles (Yahoo Group)
19 July 2004
The large accumulation of fungi on a rotten log on the cyclepath north of Old Shoreham, by the road layby, was a surprise inasmuch a visit four days earlier must have overlooked this event. The suggested species is Agrocybe aegerita (= cylindracea) which grows on wood, whereas Agrocybe praecox grows on wood chips.
Fungi in Location (Image)
Suggested ID by Jean J Wuilebaut on the Fungi of the British Isles (Yahoo Group)

 

12 July 2004
 

There was a small (15 mm cap diameter) mushroom (photographed above) in the grass by the path in the dog mess zone on the lower slopes of Mill Hill. The white texture of the stem is slightly distinctive in the first photograph.
This mushroom still remains unidentified.
Images Page

Collection of Chalkhill Fungal Photographs (all from Mill Hill)
 
 
Panaeolus sphinctrinus

On the horse dung, next to the footpath approach to Mill Hill from the Waterworks Road, there were now two species of fungi. One was a species of Conocybe (see below) and other (with the black gills in the photograph above) looked like Panaeolus sphinctrinus to my inexperienced eye (not confirmed).

30 June 2004
In the grass underneath a coniferous tree immediately next to the twitten between Ravensbourne Avenue and Buckingham Park, these two white mushrooms had the texture and was the same size as closed cup commercial mushroom, Agaricus bisporus. Alas, its gills were much paler, a greyish white.
 
 

To be on the safe side, I avoid eating all mushrooms with white gills! The stem was relatively short and invisible until its was examined closely.
I think this species is most likely to be Leucoagaricus pudicus.
This species was seen again in the same place on 5 November 2004.


27 June 2004
A very small (2 mm cap) mushroom has appeared amongst the grass near my front garden pond  (TQ 224 055) in Shoreham town. It was too fragile and it was not to be seen a couple of days later.

21 June 2004
This dried out fungi (illustrated on the right) was on a tree stump (probably Hawthorn) on Mill Hill, deep within the scrub. It was not measured but estimated to be 50 mm across.
 
 

23 May 2004

On the edge of the horse's field on the south-west approaches of Mill Hill, (south of the A27 main road), on the pile of dung next to the footpath two clumps of about 20 mushrooms were growing. It is a species of Conocybe. There are seventy nine species of Conocybe found in Britain.

Fungi ID suggestion by Jean J Wuilebaut on Fungi of the British Isles (Yahoo Group)
British Mycological Society

10 May 2004
 
There were scores of these dome-shaped
Panaeolus sphinctrinus
mushrooms by the dried cow pats on 
Anchor Bottom, near Upper Beeding. 
Mushrooms amongst the grass south of the Reservoir on the upper slopes of Mill Hill.

These are probably a species of Agrocybe.
(?)

ID suggestion by 
Malcolm Storey (BioImages)

Morel27 April 2004
An Egg Yolk Fungus, Bolbitius vitellinus, that was so dried out that it had gone white as straw. (pic). The stem is distinctive. This fungus grows on old cow pats and old hay. The old rotting reeds are comparable on its streamside location on the Adur Levels.

Fungi ID by Jean J Wuilebaut on Fungi of the British Isles (Yahoo Group)
Adur Fungi: Fruiting Bodies (Monthly Guide)

26 April 2004
On the upper slopes of Mill Hill the Morels were dried out and at least one of two toadstools a hole had been made or eaten away by some animal to reveal the hollow inside,
 
 

20 April 2004
A solitary toadstool was amongst the still short grass near a Hawthorn bush. I recognised it immediately as a Morel, Morchella esculenta, because of its unusual distinctive appearance. I had not seen one before and although an edible species, I left it in its place just south of the car park.

Adur Fungi: Fruiting Times
 

Bracket fungi

9 February 2004
The conservation workers had cleared areas of scrub on Mill Hill and the bracket fungi,Trametes, was already fruiting on the stumps.

21 January 2004
Over a hundred specimens of the Tubaria furfuracea mushroom were growing on their long stems in the long grass. They were darker brown-orange than the previous pictures and one of them had a white dandruffy cap which may have given this species its Latin specific name. None of the caps were concave (which could be inferred as a possibility from the Generic name = Tuba ?).
Images
 

Fungi on the small logs, less than 10 mm across
Stereum hirsutum comes in lots of different colours although the shape seems usually about the same. 
Both photographs. ID by Jean J Wuilbaut
Other photographs from the same log below.

 

Sheep were grazing on the field to the north and small fungi were growing on the logs by the gate.

1 January 2004
Clumps of Velvet Shank, Flammulina velutipes fungus were growing on at least three trees to the north of Cuckoo's Corner on the Coombes Road. Each mushroom was about 35 mm in diameter. The photographs below are all true and taken under natural light.
 
Flammulina velutipes (Photograph by Andy Horton)
Flammulina velutipes
Velvet Shank Fungus
 Flammulina velutipes

This is a typical species of late autumn throughout the winter. It is a remarkable species since it has its own built in antifreeze and can go through frosts unfazed and resume dropping spores immediately afterwards. Indeed, its growth and spore production are stimulated by cold.

ID and notes by Geoffrey Kibby, Senior Editor, Field Mycology
Fungi of the Coombes Road 2004
Adur Levels 2004
First Nature Guide to Fungi
Fungi of the British Isles (Yahoo Group)
Recommended English Names for Fungi
Adur Nature Notes (January 2004)
Edible Fungi
Northern Irish Fungal Photo Gallery

12 December 2003
The lower slopes of Mill Hill on one small tree, probably a Hawthorn, nearby provided home for a common woodland toadstool, possibly the parasitic Honey Fungus, Armillaria.  Both the copse on Mill Hill and the surrounding scrub seem to have exiguous autumnal fungal life of the interesting and noticeable kind in the dry year of 2003.
 

Honey Fungus
 Armillaria
 A different specimen on the same tree (flash photograph: the colour is slightly off)

12 December 2003
A cluster of small creamy white Ivory Bonnet mushrooms pushed their way up through the short moist mown grass in the centre of Buckingham Park, Shoreham, on the same latitude as the Sweet Chestnut Trees. The largest cap was about 14 mm in diameter. Most of the caps were conical, but a few of them had flattened out. The number of mushrooms was about 25.
 
Photograph by Andy Horton

My first tentative identification was Mycena.
Malcolm Storey (BioImages) identified it down amongst over one hundred British species in the genus to Mycena flavoalba with a slightly paler cap appearance than is usual for this species. More Images.
Fungi of the British Isles (Yahoo Group)
Mycenas of Norway
Town & Gardens

5 December 2003
A couple of logs lay prone against the gate on the eastern side of the Steyning Road (north of Old Shoreham and the A27 flyover) in the sheep grazed field. These logs have been examined before. The unidentified fungi (image below on the far left) was now withered.
It has been tentatively suggested it could be Melanotus horizontalis by Malcolm Storey (BioImages). Click on the image to go to the web page with further information and suggestions. A name of Wood Oysterling has been suggested for this species.
 

Melanotus horizontalis
Withered a bit on 5 December 2003. Natural light photograph showing true colours
Click on the image for more information
Sulphur Tuft, 
Hypholoma sublateritium
Sulphur Tuft, 
Hypholoma sublateritium

The central and right sided image was a small mushroom found growing underneath the bark that was beginning to peel off. All these photograph were taken under natural light to ensure true colours, and this restricts the depth of field.

4 December 2003
Returning to the overgrown field to the west of the Steyning Road north of Old Shoreham and the A27 Flyover to confirm sizes and small points about the fungi, I saw about 20 small red/orange cap of the orange species Tubaria furfuracea with some of them with a slightly different appearance, slightly paler creamy in colour cap with just a tinge of orange.
 

Bracket fungi on the logs on the
cyclepath by the layby
Bracket fungi on the logs on the 
cyclepath by the layby
 Fungi on one of the logs on the
cyclepath by the layby 
Inset = underside
Tubaria furfuracea 
in the field to the 
east of the Steyning Road
Jew's Ear Fungus,
Hirneola auricola-judae, 
near the Waterworks Road
Shaggy Ink Cap, Coprinus comatus,
amongst the brambles 
next to one of the logs on the 
cyclepath by the layby

Absent last month, but now the fungi has appeared on the logs (illustrated on row 1 above) as the cyclepath widens by the road layby south of Beeding Cement Works.

An Elderberry tree just off the Waterworks Road was covered in clumps of the distinctive Jew's Ear Fungus, Hirneola auricola-judae.

Adur Fungi: Fruiting Bodies (Monthly Guide)
Adur Levels

2 December 2003

Steyning Road Field, Old Shoreham
 

A small reddish toadstool poked its cap out from amongst the grass and chopped reeds laid prone to rot on the bank. The cap was under 20 mm across, but then another larger specimen had a flat cap at 35 mm in diameter. 
This species is Tubaria furfuracea. It is very common on damp wood fragments or even in rough grassland, especially  late in the season.
(Laccaria laccata has thicker, more distant and more irregular gills and has been uncommon this season.) 
IDs and notes by Malcolm Storey (BioImages)

At the foot of a Hawthorn Tree there was a clump of Coprinus mushrooms. These look like Glistening Inkcap, Coprinus micaceus.

ID confirmed by Malcolm Storey (BioImages)
 


Against the gate on the eastern side of the road in the sheep grazed field a couple of logs lay prone. They were covered in small clumps of 
Left: Melonotus horizontalis (probably) about 7 mm diameter
Inset: enlarged image
Right: Stereum hirsutum

ID by  Malcolm Storey (BioImages)


Against the gate on the eastern side of the road in the sheep grazed field a couple of logs lay prone. They were covered in small clumps of  Stereum hirsutum.

ID confirmed by Malcolm Storey (BioImages)

27 November 2003
On a rotten tree trunk in Buckingham Park (TQ 222 063) I removed some Oyster Mushrooms, Pleurotus ostreatus, for a culinary experiment, and a fresh patch had grown in their place. The largest cap was 130 mm wide and it was only this largest specimen that was more brownish than grey in colour. The original patch of Oyster Mushrooms is now a light brown mush.

16 November 2003
On the same fallen tree trunk, the Oyster Mushroom of last week had deteriorated and turned from grey to a dirty brown, but three new clumps of  fungi had appeared. The caps in the photograph on the right are mostly up to about 35 mm in diameter. The largest was measured at 60 mm across. From a culinary point of view these mushrooms had a moderate flavour and chewy texture after frying, and later stewing, with a pronounced aftertaste which could be off-putting.
 

It is a nice clump of the true Pleurotus ostreatus, the Oyster Mushroom. It has the typical smooth, inrolled bluish-grey-brown caps and decurrent white gills. If you take a spore print you will see that when scraped together they are pale lilac.

ID and notes by Geoffrey Kibby, Senior Editor, Field Mycology
Gourmet Page
Adur Fungi: Fruiting Bodies (Monthly Guide)
In the Basket (pic)

9 November 2003
There is a shortage of suitable habitats for many of the woodland fungi in the tidy parks and gardens of Shoreham town.
 

This an older clump of the Oyster Mushroom, Pleurotus ostreatus.
 

7 November 2003

The pair of mushrooms in the photograph were found in the twitten between Corbyn Crescent and Adelaide Square, Shoreham, on the edge of the Middle Road allotments. I have identified it as the species known as the Shaggy Parasol, Macrolepiota rhacodes. This a grassland species of mushroom. The photographed specimen had a cap of about 60 mm in diameter. The other one growing adjacent to it was 30% larger and it was not circular. The identification was agreed by members of the two following discussion groups:
Fungi of the British Isles (Yahoo Group)
UK Wildlife (Yahoo Group)

19 October 2003
 

These rather distinctive toadstools (fungi) appeared underneath the Buddleia in the garden of  40 The Drive (near Buckingham Park), Shoreham-by-Sea, (TQ  219 063). They are almost certainly the Glistening Inkcap, Coprinus micaceus. These mushrooms are probably edible when fresh in spring and fried in butter.
"Your photograph shows the effects of the prolonged dry spell. The cap is cracking and gills have probably dried out (and died) rather than deliquesced." (Malcolm Storey)

Fungi: Technical Bits
Fungi of Lancing Clump
Fungi of the British Isles (Yahoo Group)
Fungi Database
Fungi (Adur Biodiversity) Links Page
Lancing Ring Fungi in October (Lancing Nature Web Pages)

29 July 2003
One of the most widespread of the inedible fungi appeared after the rain in my front garden in my front garden in Corbyn Crescent, Shoreham (TQ 224 053).

I have identified this as the common species Coprinus plicatilis and I remembered to photograph the underside (right in the photograph above) this time.
 

17 May 2003
My first large fungi (mushroom-like) of the year are seen in short grass at the edge of heavy scrub next to the Waterworks Road (south end), Old Shoreham (TQ 207 066). The fungus is photographed below. The cap diameter was about 20 mm, but I forgot to examine the gills and stem. Emile Vandecasteele has identified this as probably Coprinus plicatilis via the Fungi British Isles Yahoo Group. This species is "as common as muck", i.e. very common in grassy places, including garden lawns.
Cercle mycophile du Condroz (web pages with photographs)

30 October 2001
Amongst the moist grasses of the Adur levels, west of the Waterworks (TQ 209 068), the large white mushrooms with a long white stipe (stem) appear to be Volvariella speciosa. The appearance of the cap varies in colour from off-white in the parasol-shaped specimens to a dirtier white almost brown in the larger specimens which were flat, and in the older-looking specimens the cap was upturned to form a shallow cup. The underside and gills vary from a light straw colour the dark brown of a commercial mushroom. The cap of the largest of seven specimens in a square metre was at least 150 mm in diameter.
This species is now known as Volvariella gloiocephala.
British Fungi Discussion Forum
 
 
Fungus, possibly Volvariella speciosa, hidden amongst the grasses (Photograph by Andy Horton) Photographs by Andy Horton

The similar Death Cap, Amanita phalloides, has been mistaken for this mushroom with fatal results.

Medical incidents and deaths (Australia)

There were a few fungi hidden amongst the grasses.
Malcolm Storey (BioImages) suggested this is most likely to be Volvariella speciosa.
Exterior link to a comparable fungus image
Another link to an image of Volvariella speciosa
2004 record of a fresh specimen from Mill Hill


Fungus.org.uk

Introduction to Fungi
Wild Mushroom Pickers' Code of Conduct
Ectomycorrhizal Fungi
Fungal Reference List

Fungi Images on the Web (Index)
Mycologist's Glossary

Adur Levels


ADUR FUNGI LINKS
Fungi of Lancing
Fungi of Shoreham
Adur Fruiting Bodies Database
Lancing Fungi Gallery (by Ray Hamblett)
Fungi of the British Isles (Yahoo Group)
Lancing Clump Supplementary
Autumn 2004 Fungi of Mill Hill
Fungi Images on the Web (Index)
Fungi of the Urban Adur Area in November 2004


Link to Adur Valley Nature Notes 2003Link to the Adur Nature Notes 2004 Index pageLink to Adur Nature Notes 2005  Index page