Adur Valley Wildlife

Wax Caps: Hygrocybe
and small mushrooms about the same size

First Nature ID page:  Hygrophoraceae Gallery

18 October 2019

Dune Waxcap, Hygrocybe conicoides, on the Widewater Nature Reserve
Photograph by Anthony Gammon on World of Widewater (WOW)  facebook

This is one of a small group of Dune Waxcaps on the Widewater flood plain.
20 August 2017
I spotted three mushrooms: a small Puff-ball, a damaged Golden Wax Cap, Hygrocybe chlorophana, and a Common Inkcap
Anchor Bottom


7 October 2013

Golden Wax Cap 

Hygrocybe chlorophana

Anchor Bottom


 Golden Wax Cap 
Golden Wax Cap 
9 November 2009
The were more small Dune Wax Caps, Hygrocybe conicoides, on the Pixie Path, Old Shoreham, with orange stem and gills and a red cap. 
Adur Fungi 2009
7 November 2009
The waxcaps of three days previously on the Pixie Path were not seen but at least two very small waxcaps appeared in the very short grass and herbs further up the path towards the east. 

These were both smaller and had red stems. It may have been the Scarlet Waxcap Hygrocybe coccinea

This identification is problematical. Odds on it is another Dune Waxcap.

4 November 2009
Two fruiting bodies of the Dune Wax Cap, Hygrocybe conicoides, were spotted on the Pixie Path, Old Shoreham, near the north-west corner of Frampton's Field. The stem in these mushrooms were orange. 
Adur Fungi 2009
Dune Wax Cap
3 December 2007
Two species of mushrooms were discovered on the exposed upper slopes of Mill Hill where the grasses were short like bowling green turf. 

The small mushroom on the right was the Pale Wax Cap, Hygrocybe pratensis var. pallida.


22 November 2007
There was at least one clump of miniature white Clavulina in the Maple Spinney next to the Waterworks Road (southern end). On the bowling green grass of the upper slopes of Mill Hill I spotted a small single fresh pure white mushroom called the Pale Wax Cap, Hygrocybe pratensis var. pallida.

Pale Wax Cap22 November 2005
In the Triangle area (middle slopes) of Mill Hill there were over a dozen small mushrooms called the Pale Wax Cap, Hygrocybe berkeleyi, (known on the British Mycological List as Hygrocybe pratensis var. pallida) near the seat. The largest had a cap diameter of 38 mm, and the tallest was at least 50 mm high.
Shoreham Fungi 2005

11 November 2005

Parrot Fungi (Photograph by Ray Hamblett)

Parrot Wax Caps, Hygrocybe psittacina, showing the gills on the lawns of St Bernard's Court, Sompting Road, Lancing (north of the railway station).

Report by Ray Hamblett (Lancing Nature) on the Fungi of the British Isles (Yahoo Group)

1 November 2005
Scarlet Waxcap ?  (Photograph by Ray Hamblett) Waxcap ? species (Photograph by Ray Hamblett)

Hygrocybe quieta (Photograph by Ray Hamblett)In the short grass area around Lancing Ring dewpond many small fungi sprouted in the turf, among them a distinctive Oily Waxcap, Hygrocybe quieta (Image). A small red one just emerging may have been the Scarlet Waxcap Hygrocybe coccinea. (I suppose it could be the Blackening Waxcap, Hygrocybe conica. AH.)

Report, ID and Photograph by Ray Hamblett (Lancing Nature) on the Lancing Nature Smart Group
Dewpond Gallery (by Ray Hamblett)
Lancing Fungi 2005

30 October 2005
The Parrot Wax Cap, Hygrocybe psittacina, was found on a lawn near south Lancing railway station.

Report by Ray Hamblett (Lancing Nature)
Lancing Fungi Gallery (by Ray Hamblett)

23 November 2004
On the lawn of a block of residential flats near Lancing railway station, two caps of the Parrot Wax Cap, Hygrocybe psittacina, were still seen.

Report by Ray Hamblett (Lancing Nature) on the Fungi of the British Isles (Yahoo Group)

16 November 2004
Observations indicated the creamy-white and brownish-cream mushrooms with decurrent gills on the upper and middle slopes of Mill Hill photographed below were one and the same species. I have identified this species as the Snowy Wax Cap, Cuphophyllus niveus, (or it could be the Pale Wax Cap, Hygrocybe pratensis var pallida) but this choice has not been confirmed.

This species has now been confirmed as the Pale Wax Cap, Hygrocybe berkeleyi, (known on the British Mycological List as Hygrocybe pratensis var pallida).

ID by Jean J Wuilebaut on Fungi of the British Isles (Yahoo Group)
Cercle de Mycologie de mons (Belgique) page perso de JJ.Wuilbaut
More Images (Adur Cuphophyllus)

12 November 2004
This is the small Lancing Clump meadow mushroom with a concave cap that was about 35 mm in diameter. Its identity has not been researched yet.

On possibility is the Cuphophyllus  pratensis (=Hygrocybe).

9 November 2004
Small brown mushroom from the edge of the footpath near Mill Hill Small brown mushroom from the edge of the footpath near Mill Hill

The two small mushrooms in the photographs above only reached 30 mm in cap diameter and most of the small clump, on the footpath approach to Mill Hill from the Waterworks Road, were about 20 mm. They have not been identified.
The spore print of this mushroom turned out to be white.

With the latest photographs this species has now been identified as probably being a Dermoloma, if blackening, Dermoloma magicum.

ID by Jean J Wuilebaut on Fungi of the British Isles (Yahoo Group)

This latter species is a new one to the British fungal list, not because it is rare though. This was difficult for me to identify because all the pictures available show Dermoloma with white or cream gills. All these specimens had brown gills as shown in the photographs. The cap in the specimen above is beginning to show white lines which were not present in the smaller mushrooms. This seems to be a feature of this genus.
PS: There was no sign of this mushroom turning black in colour.

3 November 2004
Two species of Hygrocybe were discovered and identified from one community lawn*, surrounding an apartment block near Lancing  railway station.
(* Location identified by Ray Hamblett)
Old specimen of the Parrot Wax Cap

These were the Parrot Wax Cap, Hygrocybe psittacina, and the final blackened remains of the conical Blackening Waxcap, Hygrocybe conica.
Fungi of the Urban Adur Area in November 2004

Parrot Fungi (Photograph by Ray Hamblett)29 October 2004
The green mushroom (in the photograph on the right) found on a lawn near south Lancing railway station has been identified by members of the Fungi of the British Isles (Yahoo Group) as one of the wax caps, the frequently encountered Parrot Wax Cap, Hygrocybe psittacina. This is the first record on these web pages though.
Lancing Fungi Gallery (by Ray Hamblett)

Report by Ray Hamblett (Lancing Nature) on
the Fungi of the British Isles (Yahoo Group)
Wax Caps Page
Names of Fungi
Adur Fungi: Fruiting Bodies (Monthly Guide)
28 October 2004
Mushrooms were encountered in the most unexpected places almost treading upon them before they stood out.
This white mushroom has been seen before on Lancing Ring meadows and may be early small fruiting bodies of a fungus that grows larger than these ones, the cap diameter of the larger of the two circles in the photograph measured 45 mm. Notice the decurrent gills that run down the stem. At the time of writing, I have not yet attempted to identify this species. They were found on A27 road embankment at the top of The Drive, Shoreham. This is mostly gravel, a few mosses, herbs and woody plants including Cotoneaster. The spore print from this species was white.
I perused for the identity of the species above and I came up with the possible Cuphophyllus niveus, (=Hygrocybe pratensis var pallida), which is white at first and then turns brown. This identification is nothing more than a guess. (It is wrong, not a Hygrobye at all.)
This species has been identified as a species of Clitocybe possibly dealbata.
ID by Jean J Wuilebaut on Fungi of the British Isles (Yahoo Group)
Lancing Ring record
This mushroom is the Golden Wax Cap, Hygrocybe chlorophana. They were discovered on the A27 road embankment just east of the bridge section where it crosses the Waterworks Road. This would have been part of the old Mill Hill. The cap diameter of the measured species was 30 mm. Most were larger up to 60 mm. The spore print was white.
Wax Caps Page

Wax Caps  taken on 26 Cctober 2004, with cap diameters at 32 mm +.
Wax Cap

The Wax Caps of yesterday (now: above, centre and right) had now grown and were large enough to try and identify them. The scarlet caps were at least 32 mm in diameter. The fungi are on the path and they are not expected to last. There are 63 species of Hygrocybe found in Britain. They have been identified as the Dune Wax Cap, Hygrocybe conicoides.

ID by Jean J Wuilebaut on Fungi of the British Isles (Yahoo Group)
Sometimes this species is recorded as Hygrocybe conica var conicoides. It is usually to be found near the sea. This is the name on British Mycological Society list.

25 October 2004
The was a small mushroom (first picture on the left, above) on the the muddy footpath approach to Mill Hill from the Waterworks Road, with a conical cap 10 mm in diameter when measured from the side. I have postponed trying to put an instant name to this small mushroom, photographed immediately on the right. This is likely to be a species of wax cap, Hygrocybe, Hygrocybe conica or Hygrocybe coccinea.

ID suggestion by Colin Duke (Mid-Yorks Fungi Group)

The spore print of this mushroom was white but this does not give an indication to species as the first few Hygrocybe looked at in the book all had white spore prints. This all seem strange to get a white spore print from a brown mushroom.

2 October 2004
A Wax Cap  is found on a Lancing lawn by the railway station in the centre of the village. It was in its fresh orange condition. This was identifed as Hygrocybe conica, the Blackening Waxcap.
Photograph by Ray Hamblett Photograph by Ray Hamblett

There were some blackened mushrooms at a later visit.

Report and Photographs by Ray Hamblett (Lancing Nature) on Fungi of Lancing (Gallery)

Download the Wax Cap Key

Checklist of UK Recorded  Hygrophoraceae


Camarophyllopsis atropuncta (Pers.) Arnolds
Camarophyllopsis foetens (W. Phillips) Arnolds
Camarophyllopsis hymenocephala (A.H. Sm. & Hesler) Arnolds
Camarophyllopsis micacea (Berk. & Broome) Arnolds
Camarophyllopsis schulzeri (Bres.) Herink
Camarophyllus angustifolius Murrill
Hygrocybe aurantia (Murrill) Natarajan & Purush.
Hygrocybe aurantiolutescens f. pseudoconica
Hygrocybe aurantiolutescens var. parapersistens Bon
Hygrocybe borealis (Peck) anon.{?}
Hygrocybe calciphila Arnolds
Hygrocybe calyptriformis (Berk. & Broome) Fayod
Hygrocybe calyptriformis f. calyptriformis
Hygrocybe calyptriformis f. nivea (Cooke) Bon
Hygrocybe canescens (A.H. Sm. & Hesler) P.D. Orton
Hygrocybe cania
Hygrocybe cantharellus (Schwein.) Murrill
Hygrocybe ceracea (Wulfen) P. Kumm.
Hygrocybe chlorophana (Fr.) Wünsche
Hygrocybe citrinopallida
Hygrocybe citrinovirens (Lange) Jul. Schäff.
Hygrocybe coccinea (Schaeff.) P. Kumm.
Hygrocybe coccinea var. umbonata Herink
Hygrocybe coccineocrenata (P.D. Orton) M.M. Moser
Hygrocybe colemanniana (A. Bloxam) P.D. Orton & Watling
Hygrocybe conica (Scop.) P. Kumm.
Hygrocybe conica var. conica
Hygrocybe conica var. conicoides (P.D. Orton) Boertm.
Hygrocybe conica var. tristis
Hygrocybe constrictospora Arnolds
Hygrocybe flavipes (Britzelm.) Arnolds
Hygrocybe fornicata (Fr.) Singer
Hygrocybe fornicata var. fornicata
Hygrocybe fornicata var. streptopus (Fr.) Arnolds
Hygrocybe glutinipes (J.E. Lange) Haller
Hygrocybe glutinipes var. glutinipes
Hygrocybe glutinipes var. rubra R. Kristiansen
Hygrocybe helobia (Arnolds) Bon
Hygrocybe imperfecta
Hygrocybe ingrata J.L. Jensen & F.H. Møller
Hygrocybe insipida (Lange ex S. Lundell) M.M. Moser
Hygrocybe insipida f. insipida
Hygrocybe insipida f. subminutula
Hygrocybe intermedia (Pass.) Fayod
Hygrocybe irrigata (Pers.) M.M. Moser
Hygrocybe lacma (Schumach.) P.D. Orton & Watling
Hygrocybe laeta (Pers.) P. Kumm.
Hygrocybe laeta var. flava Boertm.
Hygrocybe laeta var. laeta
Hygrocybe lilacina (C. Laest.) P.D. Orton & Watling
Hygrocybe marchii (Bres.) Singer
Hygrocybe miniata (Fr.) P. Kumm.
Hygrocybe minutula (J.E. Lange ex S. Lundell) M.M. Moser
Hygrocybe mucronella
Hygrocybe murinacea (Bull.) M.M. Moser
Hygrocybe nitrata (Pers.) Wünsche
Hygrocybe olivaceonigra
Hygrocybe ovina (Bull.) Kühner
Hygrocybe pallida
Hygrocybe paraceracea Bon
Hygrocybe perplexa (A.H. Sm. & Hesler) Arnolds
Hygrocybe persistens (Britzelm.) Singer
Hygrocybe persistens f. subglobispora (P.D. Orton) Boertm.
Hygrocybe persistens var. konradii (R. Haller Aar.) Boertm.
Hygrocybe persistens var. persistens
Hygrocybe phaeococcinea (Arnolds) Bon
Hygrocybe pratensis (Pers.) Fr.
Hygrocybe pratensis var. pallida (Cooke) Arnolds
Hygrocybe pratensis var. pratensis
Hygrocybe psittacina (Fr.) Fr.
Hygrocybe psittacina var. perplexa (A.H. Sm. & Hesler) Boertm.
Hygrocybe psittacina var. psittacina
Hygrocybe punicea (Fr.) P. Kumm.
Hygrocybe quieta (Kühner) Singer
Hygrocybe radiata Arnolds
Hygrocybe reidii Kühner
Hygrocybe russocoriacea (Berk. & Mill.{?}) P.D. Orton & Watling
Hygrocybe salicis-herbaceae
Hygrocybe sciophanoides (Rea) P.D. Orton & Watling
Hygrocybe spadicea (Scop.) P. Karst.
Hygrocybe splendidissima (P.D. Orton) P.D. Orton & Watling
Hygrocybe streptopus
Hygrocybe subminiata (Fr.) P. Kumm.
Hygrocybe subpapillata
Hygrocybe substrangulata (Peck) P.D. Orton & Watling
Hygrocybe substrangulata var. rhodophylla (Kühner) Boertm.
Hygrocybe tristis (Pers.) F.H. Møller
Hygrocybe turunda (Fr.) P. Karst.
Hygrocybe virginea (Wulfen) P.D. Orton & Watling
Hygrocybe virginea var. fuscescens (Bres.) Arnolds
Hygrocybe virginea var. ochraceopallida (P.D. Orton) Boertm.
Hygrocybe vitellina (Fr.) P. Karst.
Hygrocybe xanthochroa (P.D. Orton) P.D. Orton & Watling
Hygrophorus agathosmus Fr.
Hygrophorus agathosmus var. aureofloccosus
Hygrophorus arbustivus Fr.
Hygrophorus bresadolae Quél.
Hygrophorus chrysodon (Batsch) Fr.
Hygrophorus dichrous Kühner & Romagn.
Hygrophorus discoideus (Pers.) Fr.
Hygrophorus discoxanthus Rea
Hygrophorus eburneus (Bull.) Fr.
Hygrophorus eburneus var. eburneus
Hygrophorus eburneus var. quercuum Arnolds
Hygrophorus erubescens Fr.
Hygrophorus hedrychii (Velen.) K. Kult
Hygrophorus hypothejus Fr.
Hygrophorus leucophaeus (Scop.) Fr.
Hygrophorus lindtneri M.M. Moser
Hygrophorus lividoalbus Fr.
Hygrophorus lucorum Kalchbr.
Hygrophorus mesotephrus Berk.
Hygrophorus nemoreus Fr.
Hygrophorus olivaceoalbus
Hygrophorus penarius Fr.
Hygrophorus persoonii Arnolds
Hygrophorus piceae
Hygrophorus poetarum R. Heim
Hygrophorus pudorinus Fr.
Hygrophorus pustulatus Fr.
Hygrophorus roseipes
Hygrophorus unicolor Gröger

Web page source:  Mapmate

Classification: Hygrophoraceae (Family)
[Basidiomycetes: Agaricales]

Fungi of Lancing
Fungi of Shoreham
Adur Fruiting Bodies Database
Lancing Fungi Gallery (by Ray Hamblett)
Fungi of the British Isles (Yahoo Group)
Lancing Clump Supplementary
Fungi of the Urban Adur Area in November 2004