Shoreham AirportRiver Bridges of ShorehamLancing College
by Andy Horton
(Page started in 2000 and amended later)

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    Presentation and Discussion
    Talk by Andy Horton

    What all the people of Shoreham should know about their town. And what is not written in Henry Cheal's books or in Freddie Feest's Shoreham Herald columns.
    Bring your critical facilities with you, because lots of the material is new thinking.
    Written under the pseudonym of Questor Stanton, the format asks questions and then I attempt to find out the answers.
    e.g. .Who were the first Shorehamites? Where was Pende? What does the name
    Hulkesmouth mean? How did the Marlipins get its name? Who were the Butterfly Collectors?

    Link back to the main Shoreham page

    Historic Shoreham and the Adur Valley  facebook

    Shoreham-by-Sea  Homepage

    Shoreham-by-Sea 2
    Modern map,
    Bungalow Town,
    Ancient Times
    Link to the Adur Nature Notes 2009 web pages Shoreham-by-Sea 4
    Historical Snippets

    Shoreham Lifeboat Station

    Knowhere Shoreham-by-Sea

    Shoreham Sailing Club

    Shoreham Rowing Club

    Shoreham-by-Sea 5
    Cycling Routes
    Shoreham-by-Sea 6
    History in the Making
    Shoreham-by-Sea 7
    Marlipins Maritime Museum Adur Political Shoreham Beach
    Shoreham-by-Sea 8
    Link to Sussex Postcards page Shoreham-by-Sea 10
    Public Houses
    Shoreham Residents Homepages  Shoreham Fort Shoreham  Local Organisations Homepages

    Links to Local History web pages for the Adur Valley:

    Shoreham Fort (by Gary Baines)





    Victorian History of Sussex
    Rape of Bramber

    Terraced Lynchet: see "The South Downs" by Peter Brandon 1998, p. 41. (pic)

    Cymenes ora: this site has not been identified and it has variously suggested that the locations were either Selsey Bill or somewhere near Seaford, without any evidence to support this claim. öra is a Roman/Saxon word that could be the equivalent to shore or a landing place for vessels. (see Toponymy). A better claim from toponymic study (if you accept that the name of Lancing originated from Wlencing [one of the sons of Aella] ) is that location was between Littlehampton and Shoreham. The Saxons had a hierarchic system where the Father of his sons would allocate them a tract of land.
    Revised:  Later research indicates that near Selsey has the best claim to be the landing place. Secondly, I cannot see how Lancing originated from Wlenca. Furthermore, öra meaning a landing place for boats is also in considerable doubt. Under investigation.
    Cumenshore file (later research)

    Mearc redes burna:  this site has not been identified, but Mearc has been identified on the toponymic study of Lewisham, SE London, as meaning boundary, andburna is a Saxon? word meaning stream (or river). However, the linguistic experts dismiss this and suggest the suffix Mearcred.
    My first choice is now for a location on the River Arun, perhaps near Burpham.

    It must be remembered that the coast was very different from now with many inlets of the sea notably at Broadwater, (Worthing), and salt marshes. The River Adur was a wide inlet and probably only fordable at low tide north of Bramber (Stretham?). Old Shoreham was possibly? not known until two or three centuries later, and would must likely to have been constructed around the present St. Nicolas Church.
    St. Botolphs (church on the west side of the River Adur) on the Coombes road from Shoreham Airport to Steyning was known from Saxon times. It was probably a harbour at one time.
    de Sancto Botulpho 1288

    ingas:  this is a Saxon place name/word which is generally accepted to mean "groups of people" and was originally thought to be indicative of the early Saxon settlers. However, this theory is not shared by all Saxon historians, presumably because this theory was based on the questionable evidence of the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, and they preferred the more reliable evidence of burial finds (from studies in Sussex). They think the suffix  tun  is earlier.
    Further research (28/02/01) seems to indicate that ing suffixes were 7th century settlements. The importance of tun  is unclear. to me.
    My tendency is accept that these place names are indicative of early Saxon settlers. (see the note below).
    e.g. Patching, Lancing, Worthing, Goring, Ferring, Angmering, Sompting, Climping#, Tarring, Upper Beeding#, Poling,  Annington (near Botolphs, and originally Anningdun).
    Also Bidlington (lost, near Bramber).
    High Salvington, Offington, Torrington, Durrington, Rustington, Sullington,
    Erringham# (Erringham is just north of Mill Hill),
    are all in the small area (#or just outside) between the rivers Adur (Shoreham) and Arun, formerly Tarrant {Tarente c.725} (Littlehampton).
    Other names in this are of Sussex slightly further afield are:
    Steyning, Fulking, Ditchling, Wappingthorn, Winding,  Hollingbury, Tottington,
    West Chiltington, West Blatchington, Storrington, Washington, Aldrington, Ashington.
    Ovingdean, Rottingdean, Woodingdean.
    plus many more (about 19) in Sussex including Birling Gap, West Wittering, Billingshurst, Hastings.
    Other smaller names in Sussex:
    Buddington, Warmingshurst, Atherington, Pallington, Poling, Bailinghill.
    Other places well out of the area:
    Reading, Barking, Tooting.
    Birmingham, Nottingham, Gillingham.
    The suffix ham in the latter three names may mean homestead from the OE word ham.

    Other early place names thought to be Saxon:  Heene, Pende (pynd = enclosure or impounded water), Coombes (Cumbhaema gemære 956).  gemære = boundary.
    Other local place names thought to be Roman:  Southwick, Portslade. (These could be Latin names incorporated into the Germanic languages before they arrived in Britain?)

    pynding, e ; f. A dam :- Ðæt wæter, ðonne hit biþ gepynd, hit miclaþ . . . ac gif sió pynding wierð onpennad, ðonne tófléwþ hit eall, Past. 38, 6; Swt. 277, 8. Source.

    Earlier assumptions about the chronological implications of OE _-ingas_ names were analysed and rejected by John Dodgson in a series of articles in the 1960s. I will happily provide full references, but it's easier to begin with one of the two excellent (and readily available) accounts provided by Margaret Gelling:

    (1) "Signposts to the past: place-names and the history of England", 1978 (2nd ed. 1988): see especially chapter 5 which is devoted to the question of chronology.

    (2) "Towards a chronology for English place-names", in "Anglo-Saxon settlements" (ed. Della Hooke), 1988: a classic essay.

    Both accounts deal also with work on OE _ha:m_ and _tu:n_. Hope this is a help,
    Paul Cullen

    See also Addenda to Chapter 5 Chronology of English Place Names  in Signposts to the Past by Margaret Gelling, 2nd ed. 1988.

    Toponymy Page

    References include books by Henry Cheal and Dr Peter Brandon


  • TheStory of Shoreham
    by Henry Cheal
    First published 1921
    Republished by SR Publishers 1971
    ISBN 0 85409 699 X

    About 100 million years ago Sussex was covered by a warm sea. Sedimentary deposits of coccoliths (microscopic plankton with a calcium carbonate shell) laid down the chalk which is the rock of the South Downs of south-east England. The flint probably formed from the dissolved remains of ancient sponge siliceous spicules and was deposited at a later date into gaps and beds in the chalk when the silica then solidified. When the friable chalk was eroded the flint remained, subsequently rounded into spherical and ovoid pebbles by the action of the waves grinding the pebbles against each other.

    Rizpah (home file)

    *Reference for glacial years:  "The Shell Bird Book" pages 22-23 by James Fisher (Ebury Press & Michael Joseph 1966)  SBN  7181 5008 2

    West of its current location, according to Tarrant (to be checked)

    * The main area of early Saxon occupation is arguably near Seaford and Pevensey 15 -20 miles to the east. I have not really found any reason why this should be the location, and most of the evidence I can find points to the main occupation being between the Adur and the Arun.

    Royal Escape (notes)

    Wednesday 15 October 1651,  3 days before the Full Moon.
    October  1651
    Su Mo Tu We Th Fr Sa 
              1  2  3  4 
     5  6  7  8  9 10 11 
    12 13 14 15 16 17 18 
    19 20 21 22 23 24 25 
    26 27 28 29 30 31 
     4:   11:   18:  26: 

    AnHistorical Atlas of Sussex
    edited by Kim Leslie & Bryan Short
    (Philimore 1999)
    ISBN 1 86077 112 2

    ship money,

    in British history, a  nonparliamentary tax first levied in medieval times by the English crown on coastal cities and counties for naval defence in time of war. It required those being taxed to furnish a certain number of warships or to pay the ships' equivalent in money. Its revival and its enforcement as a general tax by  Charles I aroused widespread opposition and added to the discontent leading to the English Civil Wars.

    Look out for
    Russell, M., TheNeolithic flint mines of Sussex: Excavations by John H Pull at Blackpatch, Church Hill, Tolmere and Cissbury, 1922-1956. Bournemouth University School of Conservation Sciences Occasional paper 6. Oxbow. Oxford. 2000

    I have not seen it yet.

    Yes, this is a separate book from Miles Russell  2000  Flint Mines in Neolithic Britain. Tempus.
    which is a good, popular account with lots of pictures. He discusses the finds made during excavations of the flint mines, including human body parts.

    The review to Anne Induni refers was written by Peter Topping, co-author of the
    English Heritage book The Neolithic Flint Mines of England, 1999. (with Martyn Barber and David Field). One of the strengths of this book is a list of all the putative flint mine sites including the Sussex sites of Windover Hill, Tolmere Pond (Findon),  Slonk Hill, etc with reasons why the authors do not think they are Neolithic flint mines. However they do think that Nore Down, Compton, West Sussex, is likely to be a Neolithic mine.
    As you would expect from RCHME, there are excellent plans, plus the results of C14 dating programme.

    Caroline Wells.

    Also, "The Flint Miners of Blackpatch" by J.H. Pull

    Later flint mines at Stoke Down (? date ?) and Nore Down (? Neolithic ?)

    Ref:  "An Archaeology of the Early Anglo Saxon Kingdoms" by C.J Arnold 1988 Routledge (second edition 1997).

    Record Control No.:    E300036957
    Author: Welch, Martin G
    Title: Early Anglo-Saxon Sussex Anglo-Saxon Sussex">. Parts 1 and 2

    Sam Lucy's 'The Anglo-Saxon Way of Death' (Sutton, 2000)  ISBN 075092103X

    (Information from: Keith J Matthews )

    BC Dates for Radiocarbon dating from flint mines in West Sussex (selected):

    4310 - 3530  Blackpatch
    4490 - 3810  Church Hill
    3900 - 3030  Cissbury
    3780 - 2920  Cissbury
    3910 - 3040  Cissbury
    4040 - 3780  Cissbury
    3460 - 3360  Cissbury

    #Early (1st Century) Roman Villas in Sussex (hypothetical) from west to east (modern names):

    Fishbourne  (west of Arun)
    Pulborough  (north of the South Downs)
    Angmering   (between Arun and Adur)
    Southwick   (between Adur and Ouse)
    Eastbourne  (east of he Ouse)

    Early Roman villas were more extensive in Sussex than other parts of Britain including Kent.

    Other centre:  Chichester (Noviomagus)

    walh (from the Latin for the Celtic tribe Volcae) = Welsh

    Anglo-Saxon England
    Martin Welch
    Batsford English Heritage 1982
    ISBN   n/k


    Her cuom Ælle on Bretenlond 7 his .iii. suna, Cymen 7 Wlencing 7 Cissa, mid .iii. scipum on þa stowe þe is nemned Cymenesora, 7 þær ofslogon monige Wealas 7 sume on fleame bedrifon on þone wudu þe is genemned Andredesleage.

    = 477.  This year came Ælle to Britain, with his three sons, Cymen, and Wlencing, and Cissa, in three ships; landing at a place that is called Cymenesora. There they slew many of the Welsh (Wealas); and some in flight they drove into the wood that is named Andredesleage.

    Her Ælle gefeaht wiþ Walas neah Mearcrædesburnan stæðe.

    = 485.  This year Ælle fought with the Welsh (Walas) neah Mearcrædesburnan stæðe.
    (stæðe = bank or land adjacent to a stream?)

    Her Ælle 7 Cissa ymbsæton Andredescester 7 ofslogon alle þa þe þærinne eardedon; ne wearþ þær forþon an Bret to lafe.

    (NB:  7 = Tyronian ampersand = &)

    = 490.  This year Ælle and Cissa besieged the city of Andredescester, and slew all that were therein; nor was one Briton left there afterwards.

    Roman coinage notes:

    The Third Century Crisis period is marked by Emperors calling in the coins of their predecessors and reissuing their own, every time with less silver, thus provoking constant inflation, which was not tackled until Diocletian's Law on Maximum Prices (which did not work, because he had to keep issuing it), and then properly by Constantine, who moved to gold coinage.

    The Gallic Chronicle of 452 continues to refer to 'the British provinces', suggesting a continuing Roman claim to them.  The western edition of the Notitia Dignitatum, believed to postdate 410, refers to the officialdom supposedly in post in Britain, clearly no longer existing, but still budgeted for in case of reabsorption.  These include the keeper of the storehouses in London and that of the weaving house in Winchester. Martin

    Sub-Roman Britain

    Several writers record barbarian raids which devastated the British provinces in 360 and 367 (Ammianus Marcellinus 20.1 and 27.8), 382 and 408 (Gallic Chronicle of 452). The situation was made worse by the withdrawal of troops from Britain by Magnus Maximus in 383, Stilicho in 402, and Constantine III in 407, all of which were the results of political and military turmoil on the Continent. The Roman civil and military administration in Britain took matters in its own hands, electing three successive "tyrants"--Marcus, Gratian, and Constantine--in 406, a traumatic year which ended with barbarians (Alans, Sueves, and Vandals) swarming across the frozen Rhine.
    [Extract: please go to the web page for the full information]

    Copyright © 1996, Chris Snyder.
    Comments to: Chris Snyder

    In the Gallic Chronicle of 452, Tyro had written that the Britons in 443 (accuracy of this date is in doubt) were reduced "in dicionen Saxonum" (under the jurisdiction of the English). He used the Roman term Saxons for all the English-speaking peoples resident in Britain: it comes from the Welsh appellation Saeson ). The Roman historians had been using the term to describe all the continental folk who had been directing their activities towards the eastern and southern coasts of Britain from as early as the 3rd Century. By the mid 6th Century, these peoples were calling themselves Angles and Frisians, and not Saxons.
    From Arthurian Britain (Britannia)

    A glossy red-slip fineware pottery, originally made in Arezzo, Italy, and later in Gaul. Exported in large quantities across the Roman empire in the 1st - 2nd centuries AD. Later the British made their own higher quality pottery in the 3rd century, but this industry did not last for long.

    Roman Burial (from Ency. Britannica 97, extract)
    In the earliest days of Rome both cremation and inhumation were practised simultaneously, but by the 2nd century BC the former had prevailed. Some 300 years later, however, there was a massive reversion to inhumation, probably because of an inarticulate revival of the feeling that the future welfare of the soul depended on comfortable repose of the body--a feeling that, as sarcophagi show, was fully shared by the adherents of the mystery cults, though, on the rational level, it contradicted their assurance of an afterlife in some spiritual sphere. The designs on these tombs reflect the soul's survival as a personal entity that has won its right to paradise. Question: are the dates right for the provinces like Britain?
    In Romano-Britons, inhumation did not become the normal practice until the late 3rd century continuing into the 4th.

    Shore Fort constructed c.AD 340.

  • Late 7th century - 8th century South Saxon rulers: Æthelwalh, Nothelm (Nunn 714), Watt, Aelthelstan, Ethleberht, Osmund (770), Oswald, Duces (after Offa became King): Oslac Ælhwald, Ealdwulf dux.
  • Æthelwalh was married to Eabe who was a Christian. Bishop Wilfred was granted land near Selsey. Æthelwalh was killed by Caedwalla who was banished from Sussex.

  • Park Brow settlement at Sompting
    The farm was destroyed by fire sometime after AD 270 (Curwin)

    Curwin: The Archaeology of Sussex (1930 revised 1954)

    Prehistoric Sussex  by Miles Russell [Tempus 2002] ISBN  0 7524 1964 1  Page 99-101

    Post-Roman notes on Hay:

    It was around about this time that hay meadows were introduced as a farming practice for the cold climate of Sussex and Britain so that the domestic animals could be fed over winter. This would be presumably have both allowed a greater population and encouraged a greater removal of woodland cover. This would have been an important factor in the success of the economy.
    Source: Freeman Dyson - Infinite in All Directions, Harper and Row, New York, 1988, p 135.
    I am having doubts about this theory almost immediately after it was included. If the Romans harvested grain, surely they could harvest and store grass/hay?
    Doubts turned into scepticism. I expect domestic animals were fed fodder and scraps and hay harvested from an early date. Maybe, it was not Roman practice to do this? But did they feed their military animals grain?
    The Romans used hay meadows without a shadow of doubt, so the original hypothesis was based on an inaccurate premise:

     Cato the Elder (234-139 BCE), makes
    mention of hay in his 'De Agri Cultura', LIII, in a fairly offhand manner,
    indicating that this is no new-fangled or exotic process:

    "Cut hay in season, and be careful not to wait too long. Harvest before the
    seed ripens, and store the best hay by itself for the oxen to eat during the
    spring ploughing, before you feed clover."

    Varro (116-17 BCE), in his 'Rerum Rusticarum' mentions hay (I.xxxi.4): "All
    fodder crops should be cut [between the rising of the Pleiades and the
    summer solstice], first clover, mixed fodder, and vetch, and last hay." and
    again (II.vii.7) for horses: "The breeding stud of horses is best fed in
    meadows on grass, and in stalls and enclosures on dry hay...".

    Our most exhaustive primary source on Roman agriculture and husbandry,
    Columella (c. 70 CE) mentions hay in 'De Re Rustica' (II.xvii.6) as a matter
    of course in all meadows, in XI.ii.40 he suggests that the rising of the
    Pleiades during the second week of May is a good time for the hay-harvest,
    and goes on to tell you how much by area and weight a good reaper can cut in
    a day. In XI.ii.99-100 he expounds on the amounts and proportions of
    different kinds of fodder to give oxen during different months.

    I've just looked hay up in my dictionary, and see that Horace (65-8 BCE)
    says 'fenum habet in cornu' ('he has hay on his horns'), meaning a beast (or
    a man, for that matter) is dangerous.

    Nick (Message on Forum)

    Royal Navy

    SHOREHAM,32. 5th rate (1694 Shoreham. 1744 sold)
    1720 rebuilt at Woolwich as 20 gun 5th rate.
    1731 Lieut. Thomas GRIFFIN promoted to SHOREHAM as captain on 1st April. 1739 Cdr. H. Edward BOSCAWEN. Jamaica.
    SHOREHAM PRIZE,12. sloop (1709 captured. 1712 sold)

    SHOREHAM PRIZE, sloop (1746 captured. 1747 lost)

    SHOREHAM,24. 6th rate (1744 Hull. 1758 sold)

    General historic notes:

    Fox fur clothing, from Lindlow Man c. AD 410 -560

    In 1968 British Railways were finally released from their common carriers obligation and the loss making sundries business was handed over to National Freight Carriers, the nationalised road haulage service. This brought the end to the last of the town and country goods yards although goods shipped by the wagon load continued to operate in a limited way.

    The orbit of the Earth is an ellipse, and therefore the distance from the Sun varies throughout the year. At the beginning of the Holocene, 11,500 years ago, at the termination of the Wisconsin glaciation, the Earth was closest to the sun in July and farthest in January. Today, the opposite is true, with the Earth farthest from the Sun in summer, closest in winter. This seasonal difference is at least partly responsible for the continuously changing climate during the Holocene.

    Mill Hill source
    Shoreham Herald, 26 February 1938 (front page).

    [App. the regional (south-eastern and East Anglian) reflex of an Old English (i-mutated) by-form of POUND n.2 Compare Middle Low German pend pond (one isolated attestation in a 15th-cent. translation of an Old Frisian document). Compare PEND v.3, and also PENT n.1
      Attested earlier in place names and surnames (variously in senses ‘enclosure’, ‘harbour’, and ‘pond’), e.g. (in place names) Frodeshammespend (811; Kent, now lost; also Flothamespynd (a1200 in a later version of the same 9th-cent. charter)), Pende (c1250; with reference to an old harbour on the Sussex coast, whose name survives in the nearby Pen Hill, Sussex), la Pende (1259; now Pendell Court, Surrey), Westpende (a1272; with reference to the mill-pond at West Mill, Southover, Sussex); and (in surnames from Sussex, Surrey, and Hertfordshire) Sim. de la Pende (1261), Ralph de la Pende (1294), etc.

    Source: Kew, Public Record Office, WO/30/48/7788, War Office, Miscellanea: Inns and Alehouse, fos 437-443; P. Clark & J. Hosking, Population Estimates of English Small Towns 1550-1851 (Leicester, 1993), 147-153; via Janet Pennington: Inns and Taverns of West Sussex, England, 1550-1700: A Documentary and Architectural Investigation